Electric motors are responsible for much of the energy consumption in industries. In the industrial sector between 50 and 60% of the electric energy used is consumed by electric motors, hence the importance and necessity of using ever more efficient motors. An electric motor can be defined as a device that transforms electrical energy into another form of energy or that transforms electrical energy with certain characteristics into another form of energy with other characteristics.
When an electric current passes through a conductor, a magnetic field is created around it. If we place this conductor in a region of fixed magnetic field, the conductor will be subjected to an electromagnetic force that will have the effect of displacing the conductor. Thus, the principle of operation of an elementary electric motor arises. All electric motors are composed of a coil where the magnetic field is created and this event appears in the fixed part of the motor that when subjected to a magnetic field created by the electric current receives the name of inductor. The same event arises in the moving part which is where induced electromotive forces will arise, being called induced.